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Home > Projects >Electricity Storage: Batteries and Flywheels
Energy Research Unit

Projects: Electricity Storage: Batteries and Flywheels

Project List Wind Integration Storage Offshore Hydrogen Sustainability

Project Ttitle:

Multi-scale ANalysis for Facilities for Energy STorage (Manifest)

Project Description:

Manifest work packages.In 2012 the UK Government invested £30 million in energy storage facilities under the ‘Eight Great Technologies’ call, providing state-of-the-art equipment in five university consortia for the development and testing of technologies that span application areas. 

MANIFEST consists of a truly interdisciplinary programme which builds on the Government’s investment, to tackle some of the key challenges currently facing the energy storage community. The research programme draws on the collective expertise and facilities that exist within the consortia, and will address questions that span the variety of energy storage technologies being developed - maximising the impact of all the test-bed energy storage demonstrators.
The project addresses three key challenges:

Improving energy storage technologies is limited by our knowledge of the materials and the processes that affect them during charge and discharge cycles

Energy storage technologies need to access value spread across markets though performance characteristics of a single device may limit their applications

To make best use of large volumes of data generated by experimental and operational research activities that could benefit other RCUK-funded projects and wider community

One of the work packages is to create an UK Energy Storage Observatory, a web-based portal which will hold information on the facilities, research outputs, and provide access to data from operational runs of the pilot plants. The Energy Research Unit is providing access to the  UKERC Energy Data Centre, and will help the consortium prepare the data for long term curation and dissemination to the wider research community.
See the Project Website at

ERU Contact: Dr Jim Halliday
Duration: 30 Sep 2016 to 29 Sep 2020
Partners: University of Birmingham, University of Cambridge, Imperial College London, University of Liverpool, Loughborough University, University of Manchester, University of Nottingham, Newcastle University, University of Oxford, University of Southampton, University of Sheffield, University College London, University of Warwick and; ERU, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory 
Funding Body: EPSRC via grant EP/N032888/1

Project Ttitle:

“Green” ammonia demonstration scheme

Project Description:

Green Ammonia ProjectThe project is focussed on the use of ammonia as a carbon-free fuel, to fully decouple the supply and demand of electricity from fluctuating renewable energy sources. A small scale demonstrator will be designed and assembled, to evaluate the performance and scalability of a system that accepts intermittent energy and delivers reliable matched base load electricity to meet demand. The key components of this local configuration are an “agile synthesis unit” which produces ammonia, a generator and internal combustion engine, suitable to use the stored ammonia to generate electricity on demand.

See the Project Website at and a project-related slide show at

ERU Contact: Dr Jim Halliday
Duration: 1 January 2014 to 30 June 2018
Partners: Siemens, University of Oxford; University of Cardiff; ERU, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Funding Body: InnovateUK via grant 102000/01

Project Ttitle:

Development of Test Procedures for Benchmarking Components in Renewable Energy Systems, in Particular Energy Storage Systems (BENCHMARKING)

Project Description: The BENCHMARKING ProjectThe BENCHMARKING project developed test procedures for benchmarking tests for energy storage systems and other components in renewable energy systems (RES). The project results enabled users to select the most suitable energy storage product for their specific application, and enabled manufacturers to define the category of RES for which their product is most suited, and to estimate the expected lifetime for a well defined category of use. The project provided a framework for defining more detailed technical standards which are appropriate for a maturing industry.
Further information is available on the BENCHMARKING project web site.
ERU Contact: Dr Alan Ruddell
Duration: Jan 2002 - Dec 2004 (36 months)
Partners: FhG-ISE, BBE, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Australian Centre for Renewable Energy (ACRE), CEA-GENEC, RISOE, ZSW, CRES, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, CEC, LNETI
Funding Body: European Commission (project no: ENK6-CT-2001-80576)

Project Ttitle: Investigation on Storage Technologies for Intermittent Renewable Energies: Evaluation and Recommended R&D Strategy (INVESTIRE)
Project Description: The main objectives of the INVESTIRE network were to review and assess existing storage technologies in the context of renewable energy applications, to facilitate exchange of information between the main players, and to propose appropriate R&D actions for the future. The project reviewed available storage technologies and storage requirements of renewable energy systems. The technical, environmental, and economic suitability of each storage technology were assessed, and the gap between conventional lead-acid batteries and emerging technologies evaluated. The project disseminated results, and compiled a strategy document for future R&D.
Further information is available on the INVESTIRE project web site.
ERU Contact: Dr Alan Ruddell
Duration: May 2001 - Oct 2003 (30 months)
Partners: CEA GENEC, CEAC-EXIDE, ZSW, Tadiran, ISET, Catella Generics, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, SORAPEC, CMR, ChemTEK, FhG-ISE, CRES, ECN Solar Energy, Utrecht University, CENERG, EPIA European Photovoltaic Industry Association, IT Power, Bollore Technologies, Dynatex SA, FKA, GERMANOS SA, ICPE-NESL, UPM-IES, IFEU, JRC-ISPRA, Hawker Batteries, RBC, RISOE, SAFT, Sonnenschein, Technicatom, TNO-MEP, SEA-TUDOR, WIP.
Funding Body: European Commission (project no: NNE5-2000-00481)

Project Title: High Performance Power Conditioner for Electricity Storage: Optimised Control of Charge and Discharge Currents in Batteries for Renewable Energy Systems
Project Description: Development of a new generation of power electronics converters to modify battery charge and discharge currents in renewable energy systems, and to extend the life-time of batteries. Increase in battery output due to microcycles
ERU Contact: Dr Alan Ruddell
Duration: Sept 1998 - Aug 2001
Partners: Technical University of Clausthal, Fraunhofer Institut Solare Energiesysteme (FhISE), STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, AMSET, Vergnet, Trama TechnoAmbiental (TTA), Bread Industry Elite
Funding Body: European Commission

Project Title: Battery Charge Management for Minimum Cost PV Systems
Project Description: Development of adaptive charge control techniques, together with improved methods of sizing the system components, to reduce the overall lifetime cost of standalone PV systems
ERU Contact: Dr Alan Ruddell
Duration: Nov 1998 - Oct 2000
Partners: STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, University of Southampton
Funding Body: EPSRC [GR/M15095/01 and GR/M15088/01]

Project Title:

Valve-Regulated Battery with Improved Separators avoiding Electrolyte Stratification and Charge Controller for Low Cost Photovoltaic and Wind Installations

Project Description: Development and testing of a new battery with improved cycle life, and a charge regulator incorporating adaptive battery recharge features, enabling cost reductions in standalone PV/wind power systems PV/wind at RAL
ERU Contact: Dr Alan Ruddell
Duration: Apr 1997 - Mar 2000
Partners: S.E.Acumulador Tudor, Bernard Dumas SA, Atersa, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Funding Body: European Commission [JOR3-CT97-0131]

Project Title: Power Converters for Flywheel Energy Storage Systems
Project Description: Development and testing of power electronic and mechanical variable speed drives for flywheel energy storage systems, to provide short term energy storage with rapid charge/discharge cycling in renewable energy systems. Diesel Generator Set
ERU Contact: Dr Alan Ruddell
Duration: Jan 1996 - Oct 1998
Partners: STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, P.I.V. Antrieb Werner Reimers, Cegelec Industrial Controls, University of Leicester
Funding Body: European Commission [JOR3-CT98-0070]

Project List Wind Integration Storage Offshore Hydrogen Sustainability

Updated 17 May, 2018
Energy Research Unit at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory
Energy Research Unit
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